科技开创全民制造时代

企业新闻 | 2021-09-09
本文摘要:In his State of the Union Address, President Obama made a big deal about manufacturing jobs as a central part of his economic vision for the country. Our first priority is making America a magnet for new jobs in manufacturing, he proclaimed. I support the presidents aim and passion to revive manufacturing, but to accomplish it we first have to jettison industrial era thinking. The industrial era and the 7.1 million manufacturing jobs lost in the U.S. from 1979 to 2012 arent coming back. We must create new 21st century manufacturing jobs that leverage what America is great at, creativity and innovation. Manufacturing will grow in the U.S. when we accelerate the use of technology to increase productivity, enable new business models designed for mass customization and unleash the manufacturers in all of us.美国总统奥巴马在国情咨文演说中把制造业工作岗位当成美国经济发展蓝图中的重头戏。

In his State of the Union Address, President Obama made a big deal about manufacturing jobs as a central part of his economic vision for the country. Our first priority is making America a magnet for new jobs in manufacturing, he proclaimed. I support the presidents aim and passion to revive manufacturing, but to accomplish it we first have to jettison industrial era thinking. The industrial era and the 7.1 million manufacturing jobs lost in the U.S. from 1979 to 2012 arent coming back. We must create new 21st century manufacturing jobs that leverage what America is great at, creativity and innovation. Manufacturing will grow in the U.S. when we accelerate the use of technology to increase productivity, enable new business models designed for mass customization and unleash the manufacturers in all of us.美国总统奥巴马在国情咨文演说中把制造业工作岗位当成美国经济发展蓝图中的重头戏。他说道:“我们首要的任务,是要把美国变为新的制造业工作岗位的吸铁石。

”我反对奥巴马兴起制造业的目标和热情,但是要构建这个目标,我们首先要舍弃工业时代的旧思想。工业时代早已一去不返了,同时消失的还有美国1979年至2012年间在美国消失的710万个制造业岗位。我们必需创建需要利用美国现有优势的21世纪的制造业岗位。随着我们减缓利用科技增进生产能力,美国的制造业一定会再度快速增长,而且不会促成为大规模自定义化生产服务的新商业模式,获释我们所有人的生产才能。

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To begin, we need to recognize that manufacturing isnt an industry sector, its a capability with plenty of opportunity for innovation. We take industry sector definitions for granted. As if industries were clubs with exclusive admission criteria and secret handshakes only revealed to companies that agree to play by understood rules. The industrial era was defined by clearly delineated industries, making it easy to identify which sector every company was competing in. It was all so gentlemanly really, as if competition was governed, like boxing, by a code of generally accepted Marquess of Queensberry rules. Companies were all assigned a numerical Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code (now North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS) identifying which industry sector they fit in to.首先,我们必须认识到,生产并不全然的是一个产业部门,而是一种能力,其中蕴含着许多创意机会。只是目前我们理所当然地把它看作一个产业部门。工业时代的“产业”就像一个个俱乐部,每个产业都有各自的管理制度标准和暗箱操作者,只向那些表示同意按规则ATENU的公司打开。

工业时代是由一个个界定明晰的产业包含的,我们很更容易就能把每家公司归类到一个个产业部门里。看起来甚有君子之风,就样子大家都在监督之下公平竞争,就像拳击赛一样,人人都要按规则出有讨。

每个企业都会有一个标准产业代码(SIC)(现为北美产业分类系统,全称NAICS),用来确认各自归属于哪个产业部门。Those days are over. Industries dont work that way any more, the industrial era isnt coming back. Is Google (GOOG) a manufacturer or a service provider or both? Their acquisition of Motorola Mobility and U.S. production of the Nexus Q home media player suggest Google is serious about building manufacturing capability. Is Apple (AAPL) a manufacturer or a service provider or both? Its hard to tell the difference between a manufacturer and a service provider and the distinction is limiting. Today the lines are blurring. Think iPod. Apple didnt bring the first MP3 player to the market. It changed the way we experienced music by delivering on a value proposition that bundled product (iPod) and service (iTunes). Apple didnt view the competition as other product manufacturers Apple is a market maker not a share-taker.但是这样的日子早已完结了。各个产业的运营规则也未尝如原有,工业时代也一去不返。

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谷歌(Google)究竟是一家生产商还是服务商,或者两者兼而有之?谷歌并购摩托罗拉移动(Motorola Mobility),在美国生产Nexus Q家庭媒体播放器,指出谷歌在十分严肃地打造出自己的生产能力。苹果(Apple)算数生产商还是服务商,又或两者兼而有之呢?现在我们早已很难认为生产商和服务商之间的区别,而且二者之间的区别也很受限。如今生产商和服务商之间的界限正在慢慢模糊不清。以iPod为事例,苹果并不是第一个发售MP3播放器的厂家。

但是苹果把它的产品(iPod)和服务(iTunes)绑发售后,给我们带给了一种新的价值定位,转变了我们体验音乐的方式。苹果看来竞争的角度与其他产品生产商有所不同,苹果并不是抢占市场,而是在建构市场。Industrial-era thinking and NAICS industry codes force companies into characterizing their business models as being either product- or service-focused. This is a false choice. Making a product doesnt define the market a company is creating or competing in. Describing a business as a manufacturer immediately constrains business model innovation opportunities. If we want to bring back manufacturing we have to start by changing our thinking about manufacturing.工业时代的思维方式以及NAICS产业代码使企业的思维模式陷于窠臼,它们的业务模式不是以产品为中心,就是以服务为中心。

这是一种错误的自由选择。生产一种产品,并不意味著一家公司不能在某个市场里竞争。

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把一家公司定位成生产商不会容许业务模式的创意机会。如果我们期望挽回美国的制造业,我们必需转变对制造业的思维模式。

Once we realize that manufacturing is a capability we can get on with democratizing it. We can all be manufacturers. In the State of the Union Address President Obama announced his plan for a $1 billion investment to build a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation composed of fifteen advanced manufacturing hubs. To bring manufacturing back to the U.S. we dont need fifteen hubs, we need fifteen million makers creating stuff.一旦我们意识到,生产是一种能力,我们就可以通过把制造业大众化来构建这个目标。我们人人都可以沦为制造商。奥巴马在国情咨文中宣告,计划投资10亿美元创建一个全国制造业创意网络,这个网络由15个先进设备的制造业中枢构成。要想要让美国的制造业兴起,我们并不需要15个制造业中枢,我们必须的是1,500万个可以生产创意产品的人。

It wont be long before everyone will have access to a 3D printer. Talk about democratized manufacturing capability. Armed with a 3D printer, individual makers can create their own digital design for any imagined object or borrow a design from anywhere around the world. By simply pressing a button makers can set a 3D printer into motion rendering the physical object with layers of plastic or other material right before their eyes. What was science fiction ten years ago is reality today. It wasnt long ago we listened to the whir of a dot-matrix printer spitting out documents from our computers, now a 3D printer renders any object we can dream up the same way. With the magic of 3D printing capability we are all manufacturers, constrained only by our imaginations.在旋即的将来,3D打印机技术将走出千家万户。这是生产能力的大众化。有了3D打印机后,人人都可以通过数码设计生产出有各种想象中的物体,或者借出不管来自世界哪个角落的某种设计。

只必须按一个按钮,3D打印机就可以用一层层的塑料或其它材质,把你设计的物品在你眼前“打印机”出来。10年前的科幻小说情节如今早已沦为现实。事实上,能让我们的电脑打印纸质文档的点矩阵打印机,还是旋即之前才发明者出来的,而现在3D打印机又以某种程度的方式,使我们梦想的各种物体都能呈现出在我们眼前。

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有了3D打印机的魔力,人人都是制造商,唯一能容许我们的,就是我们的想象力。I agree with President Obama that our national mantra should be to make more stuff. I just think the effort should be less top-down and more bottom-up. The maker movement is already in full swing. If you want to witness it first hand just go to one of the 60 community Maker Fairesbeing held around the world in 2013. Maker Faires are all-age community gatherings of makers. They are part science fair, part county fair, and part something entirely new. 165,000 people attended the two flagship Maker Faires in the Bay Area and New York in 2012. If you go, prepare to be blown away by an infectious passion to make things, creativity to hack and reassemble the parts and a do-it-yourself (DIY) fire in the belly that wont be stopped.奥巴马把兴起美国经济的期望竭尽在挽回制造业上,我表示同意他的观点。

但我指出,在实践中这个目标的过程中,应当增加从上至下的成分,更好的是要自下而上。“全民造物”运动早已在蓬勃发展了。

如果你想要目睹亲眼它的发展,只必须参与2013年全球60个民间制造者大会中的一个。制造者大会是老老少少的民间制造者的盛会,它既是科学盛会,也是地区盛会,同时也是一种前所未有的新生事务。2012年,有16.5万人参与了旧金山湾区和纽约的两场创造者大会。

如果你也去的话,你一定会被那种临死前生产东西的热情所病毒感染,你心里一定会无以遏止地喷出亲自动手敲敲打打、装配零件和DIY点什么东西的念头。A maker movement is already happening across the country. Imagine if instead of looking for top down solutions in a small number of manufacturing hubs we encouraged the bottom up maker momentum emerging in every community. Less push, more pull. We can all be manufacturers.“全民造物”运动早已在美国各地蓬勃进行了。

想象一下,如果美国的每一个社区都由下而上地迸发出生产热情,而不是由上而下地倚赖几个生产中枢,那不会是什么情形。较少一些“推展”,多一些“夹住”,我们人人都能沦为制造家。Saul Kaplan is the author of The Business Model Innovation Factory. He is the founder and chief catalyst of the Business Innovation Factory (BIF) in Providence, RI, and blogs regularly at Its Saul Connected.本文作者索尔.卡普兰是《商业模式创意工厂》一书的作者,也是美国罗德岛州普罗维登斯市的商业创意工厂公司的创始人和首席分析师,定期在Its Saul Connected网站公开发表博文。


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